What are DORA metrics?

Dials, gauges, and controls from an aircraft cockpit

DORA stands for The DevOps Research and Assessment team. Within a seven-year program, this Google research group analyzed DevOps practices and capabilities and has been able to identify four key metrics to measure software development and delivery performance.

The health and performance of a product engineering team can be assessed using four key metrics.

The Four DORA Metrics

  1. Deployment Frequency
  2. Lead Time for Changes
  3. Mean Time to Recover
  4. Change Failure Rate

Deployment Frequency

How often does your organization deploy code to production or release it to end-users?

Higher performing teams will generally deploy more often, with a standard being at least once per week.

Lead Time for Changes

How long does it take to go from code committed to code successfully running in production?

This metric indicates the velocity of software delivery, measuring the time between creating a commit and deploying this change to production.

Mean Time to Recover

How long does it take to restore service when a service incident or a defect that impacts users occur?

Unplanned outages or incidents happen to even the highest performing team, tracking how much time it takes for a service to bounce back from failure demonstrates the team's ability to recover a system. Shorter recovery times build confidence.

Change Failure Rate

What percentage of changes to production or end-users results in degraded service?

CFR is a true measure of quality and stability of a team's delivery process and the resulting system.

Bonus: Reliability Metric

In 2021, the DORA team added a fifth metric — reliability — to the list of things that can impact organizational performance.

Historically we have measured availability rather than reliability, but because availability is a specific focus of reliability engineering, we’ve expanded our measure to reliability so that availability, latency, performance, and scalability are more broadly represented.

Summary Chart

Chart outlining the DORA metrics